Kurdistan is one of the most beautiful thirty provinces of Iran. It is in the west of the country, the province of Sanandaj is 28,817 km in area. It is bound by Iraq on its west, the province of west Azerbaijan to its north, Zanjan to its northwest, and Kermanshah to its south.
The capital of Kurdistan is the city of Sanandaj. Other major cities of the province are Marivan, Baneh, Saqqez, Qorveh, Bijar, Kamyaran, Sarvabad and Divandare.
Kurds are Aryan tribes who migrated to the region several thousand years ago. Situated on the ancient Silk Road, on the northern border of the Fertile Crescent, Kurdistan began to be a flourishing area during the middle Ages. In the early Islamic period, 637-641, all Kurdish castles and fortifications Arabs occupied as well as major cities. At last Arabs defeated Kurds in the year 636. Its steady decline began in the 16th century when sea traffic replaced the Silk Road. Against With the establishment of Zand dynasty, for the first time in the history of Iran, a Kurdish dynasty took the throne. During 19th and 20th centuries AD, Sanandaj is one of the most mountainous regions in Iran and has a usually mild and quite pleasant climate throughout the spring and summer. Winters are long and can be very cold with heavy snowfalls.
People and culture
Friendly people of Kurdistan speak Sorani-Kurdish. Azeri is spoken in some eastern parts of the province. The region’s historical name is Ardalan.
The major actions of the inhabitants are agriculture and modern livestock farming. Wheat, barley, grains and fruits are the chief agricultural products. The chemical, metal, textile, leather and food industries are the main industrial activities in this province.
The town of Baneh is in the extreme western part of this province and is the neighborhood of Iraq. Baneh is covered with forests and is filled of a range of trees. In the pre-Islamic period, a Zoroastrian tribe named “Qeh Qoo” governed this area, but after the Arab invasion, ‘Ekhtiar Diniha’ took over the rule. Till the mid 13th century the actual name of the city of Baneh was Behrojeh.
The township of Bijar is located in the north east of the province . Bijar is one of the fertile areas of Sanandaj. Its climate in winter is cold and dry and is moderate in summer. In the Kurdish language the willow tree is called ‘Bi’ and the area of such trees is called ‘Bijar.’ Thus because of lots of willow trees, it means the region of willows.
The township of Marivan is located in the west of Iran and in the neighborhood of Iraq. . Marivan is a cold region and is a century old. Farhad Mirza Qajar who governed just before the legal movement constructed a castle in Marivan.
Naseredin Shah ordered a castle to be built there in 1282 AH. The Zarivar Lake is to the west of the city of Marivan and has given a special beauty to this city, in addition to being a recreational area.
This town is located in the center of the Kurdistan province. This city has a beautiful natural environment and pleasant climate particularly in autumn and spring.
• Dense forests of the region
• Negel historical village on Sanandaj – Marivan road,
• Salavat Abad village
• Edifices of Khosro Abad, Salar Saeed (Sanandaj Museum of anthropology and contemporary arts) and Moshir which have been constructed in Qajar time
• The old houses of Moshiri, Vakil, Asef Vaziri and Sadegh Vaziri
• Palangan Castle
• Several historical bridges belonging to the Safavid era
• Historical hills
• Old public bathes
• Old bazaars of Sanandaj and Asef belonging to the Safavid era
• Several Mosques and Imamzadehs