Early History in Archaeological Finds
Early history in archaeological finds because Iran literally means “the Land of Aryans”, most historians begin their description of Iranian history with the Aryan`s migration to the Iranian plateau. Such an attitude, however, is unjust. Archaeological, geological, and natural evidences allow the suggestion that long before the influx of the Aryans in to Iran and the establishment of their power there, the Iranian plateau was inhabited by various peoples, whose highly developed civilizations unquestionably influenced the invading Aryans.
The first traces of man on the Iranian plateau belong to 100,000 B.C although the earliest periods (Paleolithic and Mesolithic ages) have not yet received extensive study. well- documented evidence of human habitation is, however found in deposits from several excavated caves and rock – shelter sites, located mainly in the Zagros Mountains and in the southern Caspian region, and dating from Middle Paleolithic or Mousterian times (c. 100,000 B.C. ). Paleolithic implements, produced by Neanderthal man or possibly some other Middle Paleolithic from man, have been found around Bistun in Kermanshah, Khurnic on the Zabol – Mashhad road, and near salt lake of Bakhtegan which may had been a freshwater lake in middle Paleolithic times.
The first bones of a modern, non – Neanderthal type of man, considered to be about 9,000 years old, were found in Hotu and Belt caves in the Alborz Mountains.
In Dusheh cave in Lorestan, remarkable rock paintings from about 8,000 B.C. show men riding horses and holding the animal`s reins. Then by approximately 6,000 B.C. the patterns of farming villages had been spread over much of the Iranian plateau and in to low land Khuzestan. From about the beginning of the 5th millennium B.C. to the end of the 3rd millennium, the communities of people on the Iranian plateau lived isolated lives and generally maintained the economic and cultural patterns established in the Neolithic.